Governance scheme and FNS policy coordination in Nicaragua

National level FNS rectory

National Commission for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition (CONASSAN)

It is the highest decision-making authority and inter-sectoral and inter-governmental coordinator nationwide. It is the entity responsible by Law to ensure Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition permanently and the President of the Republic of Nicaragua presides.

Executive Secretariat for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition (SESSAN)

In order to fulfill its actions, CONASSAN will receive support from SESSAN, which is ascribed to the Planning Department Head of the Executive Power of the Presidential Secretariat.

Functions and attributions

National Commission for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition (CONASSAN)

  1. To analyze and propose a draft of the National Policy for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition, considering gender and ethnic equality, in order to submit for approval to the President of the Republic.
  2. To approve and update strategies, plans, programs and projects regarding food sovereignty, food security and nutrition at a national level.
  3. To approve the design and operation of the bodies and entities that belong to the National System for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition (SINASSAN), as well as its internal regulations, submitted by the Executive Secretariat for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition (SESSAN).
  4. To present a proposal for the declaration of emergency areas or national emergency regarding Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition for the President of the Republic.
  5. To approve and disclose annually the National Report on the State of Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition of Nicaragua (INESSAN)
  6. To carry out other functions that the Law establishes.
Conformation

National Commission for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition (CONASSAN)

CONASSAN is made up of appointed representatives from different State institutions, Regional Councils of the Autonomous Regions of the North and South Atlantic, representatives from municipal governments through the Association of Nicaraguan Municipalities (AMUNIC) and by organizations from the civil society that have national representation and advocacy for food sovereignty and security and nutrition.

It will consist of:

  1. The Minister of Agriculture and Forestry, representing the agricultural and rural productive sector;
  2. The Minister of Health, representing the health sector;
  3. The Minister of Education, representing the education sector;
  4. The Minister of Finance and Public Credit, as manager of financial resources;
  5. The Minister of Development, Industry and Trade, representing the economic sector;
  6. The Minister of Environment and Natural Resources, representing the Environmental Sector;
  7. The President of the Association of Municipalities of Nicaragua, representing municipal governments;
  8. A representative of the Regional Governments of the Autonomous Regions of the North and South Atlantic, appointed alternately for a period of two years;
  9. A representative of the National System of Care, Disaster Prevention and Mitigation;
  10. The Secretary or the Executive Secretary of the Executive Secretariat of Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition (SESSAN);
  11. A representative from national Non-Governmental Organizations elected among those with permanent participation and recognized by the Technical Sectoral Council for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition;
  12. A representative from the national production unions, elected from among those who have permanent participation and recognized within the Technical Sectoral Council for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition;
  13. A representative from the national private sector, elected from the permanently participating Chambers of Commerce and recognized within the Technical Sectoral Council for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition; And
  14. A representative from the indigenous people’s organizations that has permanent participation and is recognized by the Technical Sectoral Council for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition.

A Supreme Court Magistrate, a National Assembly representative and the Human Rights Ombudsman participate in CONASSSAN as permanent guests and are able to have a say and vote.

In the absence of the Ministers of State, their authorized deputy ministers shall assist with full powers for decision-making.

CONASSAN can incorporate as guests other State and Civil Society representatives that are linked to issues regarding Food Sovereignty, Food Security and Nutrition.

Civil society and other actors participation in the FNS policy
Conformation formula

Technical Sectoral Council for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition (COTESSAN)

These are the entities that are composed by technical representatives of the members of the Commission, responsible for permanently providing technical recommendations to the Executive Secretariat for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition. The government sectors represented in CONASSAN is organized through COTESSAN. They are coordinated by the Minister, which coordinates the sector.

The Technical Sectoral Councils are made up of the following stakeholders and actors linked to Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition:

  1. The ministry or ministries and public institutions that make up the sector;
  2. One representative from national non-governmental organizations;
  3. One representative from the national unions;
  4. One representative from the national private sector;
  5. One representative from the indigenous people’s organizations;
  6. One representative from universities, appointed by the Inter-University Council for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition.

Technical Sectoral Councils may incorporate as guests other State and Civil Society representatives in relation to Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition.

Functions and attributions

The functions of the Technical Sectoral Councils for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition (COTESSAN) are as follows:

  1. To coordinate, with the Regional Councils of the Atlantic Autonomous Regions of Nicaragua, the Departmental Councils and Municipal Governments, the establishment and implementation of the National System for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition by supporting the constitution of each of the Commissions for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition.
  2. To prepare the proposal of the Sectoral Policy for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition for approval.
  3. To support SESSAN in coordinating territorial entities at the regional. departmental and municipal levels, for the implementation of the Information System in order to monitor and evaluate the state of Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition under the National Security Planning System.
  4. To prepare for SESSAN, in coordination with SESSAN’s Planning Department, the Project for the National Policy for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition, to be presented to CONASSAN.
  5. To prepare for SESSAN the strategies, plans, programs and sectoral projects regarding Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition including aspects of gender equality.
  6. To participate, in coordination with SESSAN’s Monitoring and Evaluation Department, in developing SINASSAN’s outreach strategy in order to present it to and obtain approval by CONASSAN; this must prioritize the National Policy for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition, its Law and Regulation.
  7. To participate, in coordination with SESSAN’s Monitoring and Evaluation Department, in drafting the National Report on the State of Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition (known in Spanish for its acronym: INESSAN), for CONASSAN’s approval.
  8. To monitor and evaluate, with SESSAN’s Monitoring and Evaluation Department, the Sector’s state regarding Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition and inform its status to SESSAN.
  9. Any other function or attribution established by this Law.
Coordination

Technical Sectoral Councils for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition have, among their functions: to coordinate with the Regional Councils of the Atlantic Autonomous Regions of Nicaragua, the Departmental Councils and Municipal Governments for the establishment and implementation of the National System for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition. Furthermore, they must support the establishment and constitution of the Commissions for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition. For their part, the Regional Commissions of the Autonomous Regions of the North and South Atlantic for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition (CORESSAN) are the highest authority, at the regional level, regarding decision-making and inter-sectorial coordination. Likewise, the Departmental Commissions for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition are the highest authority regarding decision-making and inter-sectorial coordination at the departmental level, as well as monitoring and evaluating plans and projects for the development of Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition. The Municipal Commissions for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition are the highest decision-making and inter-sectoral coordination authority at the municipal level; these entities ascribe to the Municipal Councils and municipalities’ Mayor presides.

Evaluation and monitoring

SESSAN’s Evaluation and Monitoring Department is responsible for developing a National System for Monitoring and Evaluation for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition, using as a basis the Sectoral Systems for Evaluation and Monitoring. The Departmental Commissions for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition are the highest authority regarding decision-making and inter-sectorial coordination at the departmental level, as well as monitoring and evaluating plans and projects for the development of Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition.

Funding
  1. Government institutions that are a part of CONASSAN prioritize resources within their budget destined for programs, projects and activities for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition committed to gender equity; these resources are assigned in the General Budget of the Republic and can, also, come from international cooperation.
  2. Municipal Investment Programs (MIP) must aim to develop, in coordination with other public institutions, strategies for promoting Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition through programs and projects funded by the MIPs or from the General Budget of the Republic.
  3. The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit must incorporate a budget line, in a coordinated manner with the technical instruments and mechanisms established under the General Budget for the Republic, for the application of the Law. The budget allocation is based on the needs and requirements of SINASSAN and the public budgetary capacity of the country.
  4. During the process of approval of the General Budget of the Republic, the National Assembly of the Republic of Nicaragua identifies clearly the expenditure items that are assigned to each one of the responsible institutions of implementing the different measures to comply with the legislation.

The National Emergency Fund for Food Sovereignty and Security and Nutrition, named FONASSAN, was created with the aim of facing food emergencies caused by natural disasters and economic or social crisis. The resources for FONASSAN come from:

  1. The General Budget of the Republic, donations from national and international agencies, private contributions or other financing that CONASSAN proposes to the Presidency of the Republic for management and approval.
  2. The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit, which allocates the necessary funds to the government institutions that comprise CONASSAN, admit the resources. These government institutions are then responsible for meeting the food emergencies through a previous proposed action plan.