Governance scheme and FNS policy coordination in Guatemala

National level FNS rectory

The National Council for Food Security and Nutrition (known in Spanish as CONASAN) is created, which through its Secretary is part of the General Cabinet, the Social Cabinet and the Rural Development Cabinet; it is the governing body of SINASAN. Its responsibility is to drive the actions that promote Food Security and Nutrition (FSN) in the political, economic, cultural, operational and financial sectors of the country.

The Food Security and Nutrition Secretariat of the Presidency – SESAN – is created; it is the coordinating body of SINASAN and is, also, responsible for the operational coordination of the inter-ministerial Food Security and Nutrition Strategic Plan, as well as the articulation between programs and projects from different national and international institutions related to FSN within the country.

Functions and attributions

The National Council for Food Security and Nutrition has the following responsibilities:

  • To monitor compliance of the objectives, agreements and commitments generated by SINASAN;
  • To approve and promote compliance of the National Policy for Food Security and Nutrition;
  • To promote approval for legislation and regulations necessary for basic food products such as corn and beans, the expansion of basic goods and the implementation for FSN policy;
  • To study and approve FSN policies, plans and strategies and ensure the availability and allocation of human and financial resources for effective implementation;
  • To know the strategic plan’s implementation levels, issue remediation measures, redefine strategies and approve short-term actions;
  • To unify criteria regarding strategies that address Food Security and Nutrition problems with a comprehensive and systematic approach, by strengthening forms of production of traditional products such as corn and beans within the context of multiculturalism, through the definition of responsibilities and commitments made by the sectors that are involved;
  • To implement government regulations that ensure the reduction of malnutrition within Guatemalan society;
  • To ensure the inclusion and implementation of relevant aspects of the National Policy of Food Security and Nutrition within the different sectors of government;
  • To harmonize the National Policy for FSN with other social and economic government policies, as well as with the poverty reduction strategy;
  • To know, analyze and propose remedial steps for policies and strategies regarding FSN, based on the annually issued recommendations by the Human Rights Ombudsman in relation to respect, protection and progressive realization of the Right to FSN.
Conformation

CONASAN comprises the following institutional representatives:

  • The Vice President of the Republic, whom presides;
  • The Secretary for Food Security and Nutrition, who acts as Secretary of the Council;
  • The Minister of Agriculture, Livestock and Food;
  • The Minister of Economy;
  • The Minister of Public Health and Social Assistance;
  • The Minister of Education;
  • The Minister of Communications, Infrastructure and Housing;
  • The Minister of Environment and Natural Resources;
  • The Minister of Labor and Social Welfare;
  • The Minister of Public Finances;
  • The Executive Coordination Secretary of the Presidency;
  • The Ministry of Social Works of the First Lady;
  • Two representatives from the business sector;
  • In addition, five representatives from civil society.

With respect to the principles of local autonomy and division of powers, the following can be members of CONASAN, should they so wish:

  • The President of the National Association of Municipalities – ANAM –;
  • The President of the Commission for Food Security and Nutrition from National Congress;
Civil society and other actors participation in the FNS policy
Conformation formula

Guatemala’s Government promotes a consultative process with organized civil society in order to propose solutions and define strategies designed to guarantee FSN for traditional products such as corn and beans on land suitable for such crops, which should be reflected in operations and strategic plans.

The following includes some of the members of CONASAN:

  • Two representatives from the business sector: elected by al the organized business sectors linked to food production, access, consumption and use.
  • Five representatives from civil society: elected from within the sectors that are represented in INCOPAS

As a part of SINASAN, the Entity for Consultation and Social Participation – INCOPAS – is created, which provides technical inputs, identifies and implements actions on issues related to FSN when it is required by SESAN. It is composed of one principal representative and an alternate representative, elected by each one of the sectors associated to FSN: Indigenous Peoples; Farmers; Business Sector; the Catholic Church; Evangelical churches; Universities and social research agencies; Unions; Non-governmental organizations; Women's organizations; and Professional Associations. SESAN summons, through notices published in one of the newspapers with the highest national circulation, the aforementioned sectors in order to appoint a principal and deputy representative to the INCOPAS; these representatives must be accredited by the SESAN and holding a document supporting their nomination.

Functions and attributions
  • To provide expert advice to CONASAN through SESAN on issues regarding actions of the sectors it represents.
  • To promote that, by achieving the objectives of SINASAN, CONASAN involves the sectors it represents.
  • To promote the participation of the sectors that represent by articulating actions that enable the implementation of the National Strategic Plan for FSN.
  • To advise SESAN on decision making in order to address temporary or structural situations regarding FSN.
  • To propose solutions and define strategies to ensure FSN in traditional products such as corn and beans in land that is suitable for such crops, which should be reflected in operational and strategic plans.
  • To promote, within the institutions they represent, FSN instruments for compliance and actions that derive from strategic and operational plans that help face temporary and serious problems related to food insecurity, as well as other guidelines issued by a formal resolution that must be respected by the institutions of government once the Executive Secretariat transcribes them.

CONASAN is composed of two business representatives and five representatives of the civil society, among others; they share CONASAN’s responsibilities, which include:

  • To monitor compliance of the objectives, agreements and commitments generated by SINASAN;
  • To approve and promote compliance of the National Policy for Food Security and Nutrition;
  • To promote approval for legislation and regulations necessary for basic food products such as corn and beans, the expansion of basic goods and the implementation for FSN policy;
  • To study and approve FSN policies, plans and strategies and ensure the availability and allocation of human and financial resources for effective implementation;
  • To know the strategic plan’s implementation levels, issue remediation measures, redefine strategies and approve short-term actions;
  • To unify criteria regarding strategies that address Food Security and Nutrition problems with a comprehensive and systematic approach, by strengthening forms of production of traditional products such as corn and beans within the context of multiculturalism, through the definition of responsibilities and commitments made by the sectors that are involved;
  • To implement government regulations that ensure the reduction of malnutrition within Guatemalan society;
  • To ensure the inclusion and implementation of relevant aspects of the National Policy for Food Security and Nutrition within the different sectors of government;
  • To harmonize the National Policy for FSN with other social and economic government policies, as well as with the poverty reduction strategy;
  • To know, analyze and propose remedial steps for policies and strategies regarding FSN, based on the annually issued recommendations by the Human Rights Ombudsman in relation to respect, protection and progressive realization of the Right to FSN.
Coordination

The Secretariat for Food Security and Nutrition of the Presidency of the Republic is the coordinating body of SINASAN and is responsible for their operational and inter-ministerial coordination for the FSN Strategic Plan, as well as articulating programs and projects of different national and international institutions that are linked to FSN within the country. The Secretariat is in charge of establishing procedures for technical planning and coordination among State institutions, Guatemalan society, NGOs and international cooperation agencies related to FSN, at different levels within the country (national, departmental, municipal and at the community level).

Evaluation and monitoring

SESAN is the entity in charge of planning, consensus, coordination and implementation, monitoring and evaluation of actions related to FSN.

Accountability

There is a legal framework for SINASAN that divides into three levels of action: Direction and Political Decision-Making, which CONASAN is in charge of; Coordination and Planning, which SESAN is in charge of; entities that make up CONASAN are in charge of implementation. Each instance has its own budget and allocation of resources, for which performance and accountability is the sole responsibility of each institution.

Funding

Each one of the governmental institutions that are a part of CONASAN include, in their regular budget planning, the allocation of resources for the implementation of programs, projects and activities that make the policy operational and each of its strategic plans. Moreover, the Ministry of Public Finances, through the Budgetary Technical Department, includes in the State’s General Budget of Income and Expenditures for each fiscal year the allocation of half a percentage point (0.5%) specifically for programs and projects for FSN for the population living in poverty and extreme poverty. These financial resources are put towards ministries and institutions that CONASAN defines according to sectoral and institutional responsibilities defined in the Strategic Plan. The Ministry of Public Finances, considering the availability of resources and budgetary constraints, includes for each year within the State’s General Budget of Income and Expenditures the financial allocation that the implementation of SINASAN demands as a whole, which SESAN formulates following the appropriate channels.

FNS Monitoring
Action description

El Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional (SINASAN) de Guatemala cuenta con un Sistema de Monitoreo (SIMON), que permite verificar el cumplimento de la entrega de bienes y servicios a la población beneficiaria; así como del seguimiento especial del gasto de las intervenciones que ejecutan 14 instituciones involucradas en el Plan del Pacto Hambre Cero a partir del 2012, priorizando los 166 municipios con mayor porcentaje de desnutrición crónica y municipios priorizados por hambre estacional o desnutrición aguda. El Sistema a través de las instituciones ejecutoras recoge información desde el nivel central, departamental y municipal. Además en el 2012 se realizó la línea base para la Evaluación de Impacto y dos encuestas de seguimiento anuales.

Action coordination

La coordinación se basa en el consenso a través del Comité Técnico de Enlace Interinstitucional de 14 instituciones de Gobierno que vinculan sus recursos a través de estructuras que permitan la ejecución financiera e identificación presupuestaria para la entregar bienes y servicios a la población objetivo de manera coordinada, determinando el lugar geográfico y el tiempo de entrega de los mismos

Involved sectors

Instituciones gubernamentales involucradas, que forman parte del SINASAN, coordinadas a través del CONASAN a nivel nacional y al nivel local por las Comisiones de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional en el marco de los Consejos de Desarrollo Urbano y Rural (departamental, municipal y comunitario). La SESAN como parte del SINASAN coordina las instituciones gubernamentales relacionadas con la temática de la SAN y el Sistema de Monitoreo – SIMON-.

Main monitoring topics

El objetivo es fortalecer el proceso de análisis técnico, que tiene como propósito la toma de decisiones orientadas a racionalizar los recursos técnicos y financieros para garantizar que las  acciones sean dirigidas a la población y por eso se han priorizado temas como: población atendida en la Ventana de los Mil Días; mujeres embarazadas, madres lactantes y niños menores de dos años; calidad de los servicios de salud, monitoreo de la desnutrición aguda y de la mortalidad por desnutrición en menores de 5 años, monitoreo de las acciones en población en situación de vulnerabilidad por la canícula prologada, entre otras;  así como la verificación del cumplimiento de metas e inversión de los presupuestos.